Explaining the need for explainable AI


Explaining the need for explainable AI

         

Using AI, executives try to solve significant business problems. In order to make accurate predictions, data scientists often aim to produce the best model possible. Having a forecast is often only part of what the end-user is asking for.

Business owners, end-users, and even regulators continue asking for more explainable models. Some want to have control over the models and test them based on gut feelings. Another need for AI explainability is to mitigate the risk of false or unethical predictions/decisions. All current models running in production need to be explainable. If not, most FSAs would not allow institutions to use them.

Increasingly, neural networks are being used to create programs that can predict and classify in a myriad of different settings. Google DeepMind published research has sparked interest in reinforcement learning. All of these approaches have advanced many fields and produced usable models that can enhance efficiency and productivity. We really do not know how they work, however.

Why do we need an explanation?

The task of producing an interpretable version of the model becomes harder as models become more complex. Using a sophisticated approach that analyzes the CNNs and applies differential evolution, this is done. To produce better solutions, this strategy uses an iterative evolutionary algorithm.

The relative ease with which these neural networks can be fooled is worrying. Health care is about science as much as it is about patient empathy. In recent years, the field of explainable AI has grown, and this trend looks set to continue. In their search for models that can tell you why they make the choices they make, what follows are some of the interesting and innovative avenues researchers and machine learning experts explore.

[AI Fairness 360] from IBM is a prominent example. These frameworks are designed to assess whether certain key variables such as gender have an important effect on the model and result in differences in results. For example, to improve customer loyalty when using a churn model, the ability to give such insights could increase the value of the model. An easy way for companies or governments to create tangible fair-matters, transparency and explanatory AI is provided by AI.AI's Grace Enterprise AI platform. It links these metrics to and effectively measures your impact and risk assessments.

 

AI Explainability Models 

  1. Direct explanation is the first group. The models of the decision tree are another model in which predictions can be explained directly. Often black box models are referred to as complex models, such as neural networks or boosting tree models. The reasons why a prediction is made are not clear. 

Recent research has demonstrated that some of the problems and frameworks that bring light to these models are overcome by the data-science community. The frameworks are usually model neutral and standardized. It also allows data scientists to explain each prediction for reasons. Your home's value might depend on the location, for example, in a quiet area with a garden.

  1. In order to improve interpretability, the RETAIN Recurrent Neural Network Model makes use of Attention Mechanisms. The model might predict the risk of heart failure, given the records of a patient's hospital visits. It could also use the alpha and beta parameters to determine which hospital visits have influenced it (and which events within a visit).
  2. An explanation of a decision after it has been made is provided by Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations (LIME). LIME is a post-hoc model from start to finish that is not a pure 'glass-box' model. To produce explanations for its predictions, it can be applied to any model. 

The key concept underlying this strategy is to disrupt the inputs and watch how this affects the outputs of the model. For example, for image classification, imagine some kind of CNN. To use the LIME model to produce an explanation, there are four primary steps. The model is weighted locally . It cares more about the disruptions that are most comparable to the original image we used.

  1. The idea of relevance redistribution and conservation is used in this approach. We start with an entry (say, an image) and its classification probability. Then revert to all inputs (in this case pixels) The redistribution process is fairly simple, from layer to layer. This process is easy. We can reverse this to determine the relevance of each input. In order of relevance, we can also sort this out. This allows us to extract the most useful or powerful part of our input in predicting a significant subset.

 

What is the significance of these explainability models?

Transparency can help us build better models when AI is weaker than human performance. If AI is on par with human performance, it can help build trust in these models. It’s not enough to depend on the predictability ratios. 

Several governments are slowly proceeding to regulate AI, and transparency seems to be at the center of all this. There is a running hypothesis that users of more transparent, interpretable or explicable systems will be better equipped to understand and therefore trust the intelligent agents. The EU has set out a number of guidelines where they state that AI should be transparent. The EU's general idea is that "if you have an automated decision-making system affecting people's lives then they have a right to know why a certain decision has been made"

Is AI going to replace humans? 

We've seen robots replace human jobs, and a robot has some kind of AI in it to make it work. This is not new and is a growing trend as businesses invest more money in this area. Will AI permanently replace all human beings and create a machine-driven apocalypse? We can't predict the future, but it's not likely at the moment. However, you might be reading from a self typing blog and my writing would be a historical document for your great grandchildren.

 


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